What Do Allergy and Immunology Doctors Do?

Allergy and immunology doctors, also known as allergists or immunologists, are medical specialists who diagnose, treat, and manage conditions related to allergies and the immune system. They play a crucial role in helping patients understand and manage their allergies, as well as providing treatment options to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life.

Allergy and immunology doctors undergo extensive training and education to become experts in their field. After completing medical school, they go on to complete a residency in internal medicine or pediatrics, followed by a fellowship in allergy and immunology. This specialized training equips them with the knowledge and skills necessary to diagnose and treat a wide range of allergic and immunological conditions.

Here are some of the key responsibilities and tasks performed by allergy and immunology doctors:

1. Diagnosis: Allergy and immunology doctors conduct thorough evaluations to diagnose allergies, asthma, immune deficiencies, and autoimmune disorders. They take into account the patient’s medical history, conduct physical examinations, and may order additional tests such as blood work, skin tests, or lung function tests.

2. Treatment: Once a diagnosis is made, allergists develop personalized treatment plans tailored to each patient’s specific needs. This may involve prescribing medications, such as antihistamines or immunotherapy, or recommending lifestyle changes to minimize exposure to allergens.

3. Allergy Testing: Allergy and immunology doctors are trained in various types of allergy testing, including skin prick tests and blood tests. These tests help identify specific allergens that may be triggering allergic reactions, allowing for targeted treatment and avoidance strategies.

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4. Immunotherapy: Allergists may offer immunotherapy, also known as allergy shots or sublingual immunotherapy, to patients with severe allergies. This treatment involves gradually exposing patients to small amounts of allergens to desensitize their immune system and reduce allergic reactions.

5. Asthma Management: Allergy and immunology doctors specialize in managing asthma, a chronic respiratory condition often associated with allergies. They work with patients to develop asthma action plans, prescribe appropriate medications, and provide education on self-management techniques.

6. Education and Counseling: Allergy and immunology doctors play a vital role in educating patients about their conditions, triggers, and treatment options. They offer guidance on lifestyle modifications, such as allergen avoidance, and provide counseling on how to manage allergies and improve overall quality of life.

7. Immunodeficiency Disorders: Allergy and immunology doctors also diagnose and treat immunodeficiency disorders, which involve a weakened or absent immune system. They may prescribe medications, administer immune globulin therapy, or refer patients for stem cell transplants in severe cases.

8. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology: Many allergy and immunology doctors specialize in working with children. They are skilled in diagnosing and managing allergies and immune disorders in pediatric patients, providing age-appropriate care and support.

9. Research and Advancements: Allergy and immunology doctors are often involved in research and clinical trials to advance the understanding and treatment of allergic and immunological conditions. They stay up-to-date with the latest developments in their field to provide patients with the most effective and innovative therapies.


1. When should I see an allergy and immunology doctor?
If you are experiencing persistent allergies, asthma, frequent infections, or immune-related symptoms, it’s advisable to consult an allergist or immunologist for a comprehensive evaluation.

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2. How long does an allergy testing appointment take?
The duration of an allergy testing appointment can vary, but it typically ranges from 1 to 2 hours. This allows for the necessary time to perform tests, discuss results, and develop a treatment plan.

3. Are allergy shots painful?
Allergy shots involve injecting small amounts of allergens under the skin, which may cause mild discomfort or a slight sting. However, the pain is typically minimal, and most patients tolerate the injections well.

4. How long does it take for immunotherapy to work?
Immunotherapy is a long-term treatment that usually takes several months to show significant improvement. Patients may start to notice a reduction in symptoms after a few months, but full benefits may take up to a year or longer.

5. Can allergies develop later in life?
Yes, allergies can develop at any age, even if you have never experienced them before. It’s important to consult an allergist if you suspect you have developed new allergies.

6. Can allergies be cured?
While there is no cure for allergies, allergists can help manage symptoms effectively through various treatment options. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many individuals can experience significant improvement in their quality of life.

7. Are food allergies and food intolerances the same?
No, food allergies and food intolerances are different. Food allergies involve an immune system response, whereas food intolerances typically involve difficulty digesting certain foods. Allergy and immunology doctors can help differentiate between the two and provide appropriate management strategies.

8. Can allergies be prevented?
It is not always possible to prevent allergies, as they can be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, allergists can offer guidance on allergen avoidance and help minimize exposure to triggers.

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9. Can allergens change over time?
Yes, allergens can change over time. It is not uncommon for individuals to develop new allergies or for existing allergies to become less severe or disappear. Regular evaluations by an allergist can help identify any changes in allergen sensitivity.